According to the Oxford English Dictionary's entry for bong, the term derives from Thai and originally referred to a tubular section of bamboo, which could be used in the construction of a water pipe. Modern day bongs or water pipes can be made from a variety of materials, including glass, ceramic, or plastic.
Research articles are less likely to use colloquial terms like "bong," especially for historic time periods outside of southeast Asia to which the term would not apply. Consider combinations of the following terms: "pipes," "smoking paraphernalia," "water pipes," "smoking," "cannabis," "marijuana," "pharmacological," "psychoactive," "intoxicants," "archeology," "history," or geographical, cultural, or time-period identifiers.
The first textual record of cannabis use for intoxication comes from the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, who famously described the Scythians, an ancient nomadic people, as cannabis users.
Recent archeological evidence confirms the text. Smoking paraphernalia with cannabis residue has been discovered in Scythian kurgans (funerary mounds). Archeologists have also discovered water-pipes with residual cannabis in East Africa, Central Asia, and elsewhere.
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